The hybrid wars require innovative thinking, a more flexibility in action, and enhanced cognitive skills.
This paper lays out some findings of neuroscience. In this respect we can conclude that neuroscience should be used as a tool in educational policy. Knowing that the education is a powerful form of cognitive enhancement we consider that the neuroscience research could identify the mechanisms of learning and the sources of individual differences in learning ability in order to develop the cognitive skills needed in the hybrid framework of the battle.
Keywords: hybrid war, cognitive skills, sociology of neuroscience.
Department of Defense and for major military educational institutions. As this turbo jam burning grasing program de elită reveals, hybrid threats incorporate a full range of different modes of warfare including conventional capabilities, irregular tactics and formations, terrorists acts including indiscriminate violence and coercion, and criminal disorder.
During the history, many wars have had both regular and irregular components. However, in most of cases, these components occurred in different stages, theaters or formations. In Hybrid Wars, these forces are emerging into the same force in the same time and in the same battlespace. Contrary, beside conventional warfare the hybrid war will complicate the defense planning in the future.
Even though the aim of this paper is not to present the complexity of this relatively new concept, we will analyze the main dimensions of it in closed relation with new turbo jam burning grasing program de elită for education and training. Due to the influence of hybrid war we have to thing at many other creative pedagogical approaches to develop innovative thinking and stimulate strategic thought.
In my opinion this could be very provocative circumstances for military education and training system who is recognized as promoting more obedience, conformity, compliance instead of initiative, creativity and critical thinking.
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In this respect, the same author expressed the view on role of education as main factor for enhanced readiness. Also, beside decision-making skills and tactical abilities of our military leaders, the military educational policy could comprise specific actions in order to design and develop the military learning organization as proper educational environment for preparing the future graduates as Hybrid Warriors in diverse educational experiences, equipped with all required traditional and new skills, including or together modalități ușoare de a slăbi repede abilities from domain as cultural intelligence, cyber defense and public diplomacy.
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This will require not just to modify our mindset but also, in order to achieve all requirements for confronting new mode of war, a rapid adaptation at both individual and institutional level. Russell Glenn analyses the inconsistent usage of the various manifestations of hybrid warfare. The literature regarding the future security environment has not a precise definition of hybrid war.
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However, all definitions of hybrid war tend to emphasize the blending of regular and irregular approaches to warfare in novel and unexpected ways. Therefore, within the recent strategies designed for planning and conducting of military operations, in opposition with the material approach, based on the use of violence for political ends and founded on the belief that physical or material advantages represent a decisive advantage on the battlefield, a complementary approach is developing, the cognitive approach.
Approaches to Warfare. Source: D. Sadowski and J. In this approach, belligerents attempt to bypass the material assets of an adversary altogether and focus on the mind, mental processes, emotions, feelings, perceptions, behaviors, and decisions of a person, group, nation, or other community. As argument for this assumption we use the main ideas and conclusions gathered from a conference organized by Marine Corps Training and Education Command and the United States Naval Academy in , whose paper argued that without a clear understanding of the role of training and education - to regularize the competencies associated with irregular war all efforts to transform Professional Military Education PME to meet new challenges may fail.
He appreciates the role of education to focus on the development of minds, the development of understanding, wisdom and good judgement and concludes that militaries will need more time for professional military education. Gil Ariely Israeli Defense Forces proposed that requisite qualities for learning are learnable, and appreciated that the result is an adaptive ability that may act as a catalyst for change, so necessary in very dynamic and volatile environment of the war.
This vital ability for military organizational evolution should be pedagogically installed through education of commanders in order to help transform the military to develop real-time adaptive-abilities. From Joseph J. Thomas, director at Lejeune Leadership Institute, Marine Corps University, who is starting from the overall premise that the first step in inculcating a spirit of adaptability is to change the way we teach rather than to simply change what is taught, we retained that a new balance between training and education should be established.
So, an turbo jam burning grasing program de elită environment calls upon a mind-set not often encountered in entry level training or occupational specialty producing schools. Those environments are turbo jam burning grasing program de elită around the principle that knowledge, skills, and abilities turbo jam burning grasing program de elită be provided and assessed. They are training.
Speaking on the importance of developing adaptive leaders, he stressed the need of change. Therefore, training is viewed as learning process focused on technical and procedural abilities or standard solutions certainty applied by personnel to predictable circumstances, a familiar problem in a familiar context.
Complementary, on the other hand, education is viewed as process by which we transform the theoretical knowledge of the soldier into cognitive skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, communication and cross-cultural competence, interpersonal skills and cultural flexibility, tolerance for ambiguity, selfregulation, and social initiative.
Shortly speaking, all of these represent skills needed to thrive or adapt to VUCA environments Volatile - rate of change; Uncertain - lack of predictability; Complex - diversity and chaos; Ambiguous - haziness of reality. Another presenter at the above mentioned conference, Miriam Weinstein from Israeli Defence Forces Ground Forces Command — Military Psychology Centre, argued that success in the military is not one-dimensional, but consists of different aspects—such as adaptability to pierderea în greutate charlie duck system, combat effectiveness, and suitability for command.
In this respect, military action requires distinct qualities for different contexts and the qualities required in training may be different from those in actual fighting, i.
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Cognitive readiness represents the potential of individuals turbo jam burning grasing program de elită units to perform well in combat or other military operations, based on an assessment of their mental preparation. But the readiness of individuals and units to acquire the additional capabilities required to meet the unexpected, unforeseen challenges associated with the asymmetric battle space is an increasingly vital element of their preparation.
Cognitive readiness is a measure of that preparation. Nick Marano, Marine Corps Training and Education Command, USApresented the main paradigm shift between traditional warfare and irregular warfare, the last one being based on the use of indirect, non-conventional methods and means to subvert, erode, and exhaust an adversary rather than defeat him through direct conventional military confrontation.
Cognitive enhancement usually refers to increased mental prowess, for instance, increased problem-solving ability or memory. Such enhancement is usually linked with the use of drugs or sophisticated technology. However, when compared with these means, education seems the most broadly and consistently successful cognitive enhancer of all.
Literacy and numeracy change the human brain, also enable human beings to perform feats that would not be possible without these cultural tools, including the achievements of science . Sum up, neuroscience researchers from Science Policy Centre, The Royal Society, UK, concluded that education is a powerful form of cognitive enhancement.
Cognitive reserve and resilience can be built up at any point during life. But they are increasingly being used off-licence in people with normal brain function, along with many other over-the-counter drugs.
These smart drugs have been used to overcome jet-lag, reduce the need for sleep, and boost motivation and concentration, by affecting the role of neurotransmitters in certain cognitive processes. It provides means to develop a common language and bridge the gulf between educators, psychologists and neuroscientists. Neuroscience evidence should inform the assessment of different education policy options and their impacts where available and relevant.
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Neuroscience evidence should also be considered in diverse policy areas such as health and employment. Stronger links within the research community and between researchers and the education system are needed in order to improve understanding of the implications of neuroscience for education.
New educational technologies provide opportunities for personalised learning that our education system cannot otherwise afford. However, new findings and knowledge from neuroscience suggests a number of potential military applications . There are several areas in which advances in neuroscience might confer performance advantages in a military context, namely recruitment, training, operational performance and rehabilitation.
According with the new findings, with advances in neuroscience and our increased understanding of the brain, potential military applications for the enhancement of personnel have never been so prominent. The ability to achieve balance between material and cognitive approaches to warfighting is both the essence of the future threat, as well as part of the struggle to build a force that is adaptive in organizational design, capabilities development, and campaign design and execution.
Additionally the hybrid adversary is very flexible and adapts quickly to the changing conditions.
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In response to the conflict in Ukraine, on the Wales Summit NATO has decided to take on an ambitious task: developing a set of tools to deter and defend against adversaries waging hybrid warfare. I have argued that to move beyond the realm of hybrid wars pierderea în greutate flagstaff az threats, it is necessary to examine the present context of pedagogies concerned with military training and education.
Failure to address these hybrid aspects of pedagogy can lead to the assumption that educational solutions to contemporary battlefield problems are to be found the addition of more science based military training and education for adaptability to VUCA environments. Even the most progressive of current curricula approaches requires reflection on pedagogy in terms of questions of theory and educational practice. I have argued that new kind of threats or hybrid wars offer openings for rethinking military education through hybrid pedagogies, but are limited due to the idea that mentality changes have to start from military decision makers, an assumption that should set education in advance of particular training related to predictable circumstances or contexts.
This is not a plea to an absolute solution; it is also a mistake to accord privilege to one or another forms of military grounding, education or training, to traditional or to irregular approach of warfare.
The article reveals concerns arising at least ten years ago among foreign military specialists and scholars on the new or hybrid pedagogies with a clear intention or hope that similar efforts would be made by the Romanian military pedagogy in order to find adequate educational solutions for the development of cognitive skills to ensure a cognitive readiness of the military personnel. Disclaimer; Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect the turbo jam burning grasing program de elită of the organization.
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Salmoni ed. Ruck coord. When the family environment, rather than being one of comfort and safety becomes a place of deprivation, pain and violence, the child is the one who will suffer the most from the effects of these disorders and conflicts. This work refers to the counselling of abused children and includes a case study on a case of sexual abuse of a minor. We offer practical suggestions on how parents and school can intervene in the education of children so that they grow to become happy, balanced and efficient adults.
Keywords: sexual abuse, maltreatment, case study, psychological counseling. How it interacts, the affective climate and its socio-cultural model are important in social integration and the establishment of social components. For most parents, getting to understand children, is the work of a lifetime, because each child is different in a unique way. When a child feels misunderstood, rejected and turbo jam burning grasing program de elită, he can develop bitterness, conflict or rebellion at the psychological level.
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Often this happens when parents force severely their ideas on how the child should be educated. Completely dependent on adults an with their personality in training and development, with a still unstable character, children can easily be target for aggressive behavior and antisociality trends from the adult embodied in various manifestations which have adverse consequences on the development of children's personality. The treatment and rehabilitation of children victims of abuse is turbo jam burning grasing program de elită guarantee for a future adult balanced and adjusted, preventing the perpetuation of the abuse.
The abuse requires psychological, medical and social intervention and recovery, conducted by a team of specialists who can use specific techniques. Some families who aplly maltreatment are known by social professionals. It is very difficult for an abused child who comes from this environment to evolve. Even if the fact of growing up in an environment where violence reigns is an educational model, not all adults who were mistreated in their childhood become violent partners or parents.
Conversely, not all adults who mistreat their children come from an environment where violence was exercised.
The focus is on family-related factors and environmental context, especially on the low level of education, unemployment, poverty, lack of turbo jam burning grasing program de elită support.
Parents who maltreat their children in a chronic manner prove a lower social participation. Their children are also less involved socially. A mother who lacks social support is likely to have relational turbo jam burning grasing program de elită with her child more than a mother who is not isolated. The dysfunctional social network of the family can participate in the etiology of chlid maltreatment.
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Often this may be an act of transitory maltreatment related to the moment of crisis. For example, in the event of a divorce, the father can become violent towards the children and the turbo jam burning grasing program de elită can become depressed due to the problems she has to overcome. Once the crisis is over, the parents can restore an effective educational system, without violence or neglect.
This abuse includes: attracting, convincing, use, corruption, and forcing minors to participate in sexual activities or assisting another person during activities that serve adults to obtain pleasure.
Children who have been abused are under the terror of physical and mental violence, sexual abuse, severe neglect with serious consequences for their physical and mental development. The child who is abused, assaulted, suffers a distortion of social behavior.
In the community the child is withdrawn, fearful, feels threatened, or on the contrary can be aggressive, vindictive, intolerant, domineering. Assessment and intervention are two components of the process of aid support, each with specific purposes and are aimed at ensuring the biological and psychological needs of the child are met. Knowing the case does not stop at the evaluation stage, but on the other hand, the assessment must be conducted so as not to aggravate the child's condition, but to improve it by its curative aspects.
With the accumulation of data about child abuse, it is necessary to clarify the boundaries that professionals must turbo jam burning grasing program de elită into account in order to avoid exaggeration or understatements. In cases of child abuse, the first aspect of the assessment is the investigation phase because it aims to gather information to confirm or refute the suspicion of committing illtreatment by persons who are supposed to take care of the minor.